Blended Learning - A Pilot Study Chow Chiu Wai, Lim Jit Ning Hwa Chong Institution
After exploring and evaluating various ways in using ICT for teaching and learning, we decided to pilot an innovative pedagogy for teaching and learning Physics - Blended Learning. Many educators around the world embraced blended learning in recent years. It is a promising pedagogical approach that can transform teaching and learning. Blended learning provides opportunities for teachers to guide the students in their learning during the face-to-face classroom session, while at the same time, technologies were used to support learning both during and outside class hours. Our pilot study involved a group of JC1 Physics students in two phases over a total of 6 weeks in 2010. In this presentation, we report on the blended learning experience, challenges encountered, feedback from students as well as our follow-up plan for 2011.

Strand: Pedagogy (including use of Ed Tech)
Keywords:Blended Learning: ICT, eLearning, Guided Inquiry

Teachers & Technology: ‘Dealing with’ ICT Integration in a ‘School of the Future’Melvyn LimHwa Chong Institution
Many studies worldwide on the use of new technology in schools have concluded that successful ICT implementation is likely to depend on people and socio-cultural factors rather than with technology per se. Given the pivotal role attributed to people in harnessing technology for effective teaching, there is surprisingly very little written which relates specifically to how teachers deal with the use of new technology in the classroom. My study seeks to remedy this neglect.

The aim of my research is to develop substantive theory concerning how teachers in a pioneer ‘School of the Future’ in Singapore deal with ICT integration in the school curriculum. Broadly, the research was conducted using the symbolic interactionist theoretical approach within the interpretivist paradigm, utilising ‘grounded theory’ methods of data gathering and analysis. The preliminary discussion will centre on the main factors that shape teachers’ perspective and experience, as well as influence ICT integration.

Strand: Pedagogy (including use of Ed Tech), Diverse Learning Environment, Teachers’ Professional Development
Keywords: Future School, ICT Integration, Role of Teachers, Grounded Theory

Effects of Using Calculus on Attitudes
Achievement of Junior College Students in Singapore
Lim Siew Yee Hwa Chong Institution
Many studies advocate the use of history of mathematics in education. However, quantitative research in this area is scarce, especially in Singapore. To address this issue, a quasi-experiment is used to investigate the relationship between the use of history of calculus, and the attitudes and achievement of junior college students in Singapore. Four classes are assigned into two equal groups (total n = 104). A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with pretest scores on attitudes and achievement as covariates, and attitudes and achievement as dependent variables, is performed to determine whether there is a significant difference in the posttest scores of the experimental and control groups.
Strand: Curriculum, Pedagogy (including use of Ed Tech)
Keywords:History of calculus, junior college mathematics education

Peer-developed and Peer-led Practicals 
Tham-Kee Yong Huang, Cheng-Liau Ming Lee, Lim-Chen Xintian Hwa Chong Institution
In a typical Chemistry practical lesson, students would follow a set of instructions mechanically to complete an experiment, often with little understanding of the underlying principles and goals of the experiments. Our team decided to carry out an authentic learning project which capitalized on a group of high-performing students’ interests and creativity to craft a more engaging and productive laboratory curriculum. Students from 3 SMTP* classes were grouped into teams to design an experiment on a topic learnt and subsequently lead their peers to carry out the experiments. Each team led a session and attended two other sessions led by their peers. At the end of the project, the students handed in their lab reports and completed a survey on their experience. Students’ feedback show that this project has successfully created a student-centered and authentic laboratory experience, while giving students an opportunity to research on a given topic, and most of all, it fosters self-directed and cooperative learning among students.

* SMTP refers to Science and Mathematics Talents Programme

Strand: Innovation in Teaching and Learning (Diverse Learning Environment)
Keywords:Authentic learning, research, design, lead, experiments, student-centred, self-directed, cooperative learning

Infusing Circle Time Concept in PedagogyTham-Kee Yong Huang Hwa Chong Institution
In Junior College, lecture-tutorial is the main mode of instruction. Each tutorial session typically lasts for 1 hour. However, students with short attention span often find it difficult to sustain their attention throughout the one-hour tutorial session. Even with student-centered approach, it is not easy to get all students to be actively engaged throughout the lesson. It is not unusual to have only a small group of students monopolizing the answering of questions while the rest of the students simply ‘switch-off’. By adapting the CIRCLE TIME concepts developed by Dr Sue Roffey, together with some pedagogical strategies, some lessons were conducted with one tutorial group in the ‘Circle’ way in Term 2 of 2009. The engagement level and attention span of the students were found to improve tremendously, leading to more effective learning and better test performance. Students’ feedback was very positive, with almost all of students giving the thumbs-up for tutorials conducted in the ‘Circle’ way.

Strand: Pedagogy (including use of Ed Tech)
Keywords: Circle Time, pedagogical strategies, increase engagement level, improve attention span, effective learning

Alternative Modes of Assessment – The Oral Defence Mrs Nirmala Ong, Mrs Eileen Tan, Mr Edwin Lim Hwa Chong Institution
An aspect of some subjects examined by Coursework, Independent Study papers or a written report of self-directed research is the Oral Defence (sometimes called a Viva or Oral Presentation). An important part of this examination is the question or questions posed by the assessors. Other issues include the physical as well as psychological setting of the examination. Additional important elements include minimising assessor-bias as well as candidate’s stress-induced below-par performance.This concurrent session “Alternative Modes of Assessment – The Oral Defence” will focus on questioning techniques, with due attention paid to the other elements of the Oral Defence mentioned above. Participants will hear a presentation on recommended questioning techniques for the assessor. Participants will also get an opportunity to practise the skills and receive immediate feedback from facilitators. This session will be run like a mini-workshop.

Strand: Assessment, Diverse Learning Environment
Keywords: Alternative assessment, Oral defence, Viva, Oral presentation, Questioning techniques

Collaborative Learning: A case study on efficacy of the
2009 Economics Peer Tutoring Programme at Hwa Chong Institution
Mrs Chong-Ng Swee Kuan
Hwa Chong Institution

This case study used a mixed-method approach to determine what worked for a same-age peer tutoring programme in a humanities subject like Economics. The quantitative investigation asked peer tutors and their respective peer tutees about the perceived variables that determined efficacy of the programme. The programme lasted ten weeks with no special training given to peer tutors. Both peer tutors and tutees completed quantitative survey questionaires that served to capture information of their performance for internal school examinations, their perceptions on attributes of a successful tutor, ratings on specific features of the programme and ratings on the reasons why peer tutees were weak in the subject and the peer tutors’ beliefs in self-efficacy. Following that, five successful peer tutors whose tutees showed the highest effect size were identified for a guided focus group interview. This qualitative investigation summarized some of the strategies used by successful tutors.
Strand: Curriculum, Diverse Learning Environment
Keywords: Peer tutoring, Economics, Focus group interview

KUNGFU PHYSICS – Collaborative e-assignment using wikispacesQuek Wee Tong, Chen Geok Loo, Irene Tan Hwa Chong Institution
This paper is about the Home-based Learning (HBL) assignment created by the Physics Unit for the JC 2 cohort in March 2010 over the e-learning period. Students were splitted into groups of 4-5 to complete an online assignment. This assignment required students to watch clips from a popular action movie, Kungfu Hustle, identify the good and bad physics and to provide explanations using concepts taught in the 'A' Level syllabus. The platform for their collaborative work was wikispaces. The strategies involved were the use of humour and popular media as the main tool to engage the learners in collaborative learning, leading them to probe deeper about the topic.
Strand: Pedagogy (including use of Ed Tech)
Keywords: Collaborative learning, wikispaces.

A Study of Achievement Goals in a Single Sexed Independent School:Student Interest, Learning Strategies and Performance
Goh Poh Hong Patricia, Deline Victoria Soh, Lai Swee Choo
Nanyang Girls’ High School

Many researchers have consistently shown the importance of students’ motivation and how their different goal orientations can lead to adaptive learning strategies and eventually leading to academic achievements. However, little is known about the goal orientation and the learning strategies of students in the Singapore context. This research was undertaken to examine the students’ goal orientations, learning strategies and academic achievement in the context of chemistry. The actual questionnaire is a combination of 3 different instruments as follows: Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, IMI (Ryan & Deci), Task and Ego Goal Orientation and Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pual Pintrich, 1980). The sample included 443 Secondary Four students from a Single Sex Independent School in Singapore. Implications of the findings will be discussed with practical suggestions to help teachers implement strategies that will help students find adaptive learning strategies which will allow them to achieve academic excellence.

Strand: Diverse Learning Environment
Keywords: Achievement Goal, Motivation, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire

Engaging Female Students in the Learning of Physics
Ang, Joo Liak and Tan, Boon Hian
Nanyang Girls’ High School

To better prepare our children for a globalised and inter-connected world, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, (P21, 2009) has proposed a curriculum framework that include skills and competencies beyond the cognitive domain. This includes broad areas like Life Skills, and the Information, Media & Technology Skills. Using the P21 framework, we classified the instructional and assessment practices in a physics course for female students in our high school to reflect the specific student learning outcomes. The discussion in the paper would focus on building the students’ competencies in the use of ICT (such as web 2.0 tools) and well as engaging them through current and real-world issues (such as environmental and career issues). The specific learning and teaching issues pertaining to female learners in physics and their implications for curriculum development would also be discussed.

Strand: Curriculum
Keywords: Female physics students, context-based learning, ICT, humanistic approach, P21.

Nurturing Self-Regulated Learners through Authentic Assessments
Seah-Tay Hui Yong
Nanyang Girls’ High School

There is currently increasing agreement among both government and researchers that we should develop self-regulated learning (SRL) in school leavers if they are to succeed in the 21st century workforce. This paper presents the findings of a two-year research that examined the link between SRL and the school-wide use of authentic assessments in NYGH. The research used a mixed method design, using sequentially quantitative and qualitative phases. Quantitative data on SRL was gathered using a self-report questionnaire I had designed based on Zimmerman’s cyclical Forethought, Performance and Self-reflection model of self-regulation. Inferences from the quantitative data were supported by interview data from 19 participants. Their comments corroborated the literature review that real life setting, student control and ability to self-assess facilitated students’ SRL. Furthermore, the study provided a clearer picture of how these factors are linked.

Strand: Assessment
Keywords: Self-regulated Learning, Authentic Assessments, Mixed Methods

Technology and Music Education: The Potential of iPads and Tablets in Classroom Music TeachingDr. Matthew Lim Wee Chin Nanyang Girls’ High School

Technology has always played an important part in music development. In Western music, the invention of the piano, machine tooling for the boring of brass, and the invention of recording all revolutionized music making in its time. Today the personal computer is considered the next great leap in musical instrument development in terms of its potential. Together with the progressively user-friendly and cost-friendly software and applications that are being developed, not to mention mobile platforms such as the iPad, the potentials for music learning and music making are greater than ever before. This presentation explores how the iPad and similar platforms, which allows for constant access to Web resources as well as tap on the creative music applications currently being developed all over the world, may change the equation in music classroom teaching.

Strand: Pedagogy (including use of Ed Tech)
Keywords: Music Education, Information Technology, iPad

The Joy of Reading – Research on the Enhancement of Chinese Reading Text and Strategies
Mdm Yeo Buay Kee, Miss Ong Meiqing
Nanyang Girls’ High School(Presentation will be in Chinese)

Over the years, educators have explored numerous teaching strategies to help secondary school students discover the joy of reading and find learning Chinese a joy. This paper aims to explore the effectiveness of differentiated reading and whether such a reading programme is a good way to cultivate reading habits among students. In this session, presenters will introduce the Stratified Reading Programme (SRP) which consists of 3 components, namely Enthusiastic reading, Specific reading and Intensive reading. It focuses on how SRP is carried out in secondary Chinese Language classroom settings and analyse its effectiveness in promoting the reading of Chinese texts among students.

Strand: Curriculum, Diverse Learning Environment
Keywords: Motivation, Differentiation, Chinese Language

把“时尚”带进华文课堂 ——李晓辉 老师南洋女中

Strand: Curriculum, Diverse Learning EnvironmentKeywords: iPad, Chinese Language

A ‘Caring Thinking’ Module in Mathematics:Its Impact on Social Attitudes and Behaviours of Students
Liu Shiueh Ling (Dr)
Nanyang Girls’ High School

This study looks at the impact of ‘Caring Thinking’ on students’ social attitudes and behaviours as a result of being taught values in a mathematics context, that is, as part of a mathematics module at one of the premier high schools in Singapore. The study has two main aims: the first is to develop interval level, unidimensional scales of Self-discipline, Moderation, Dependability and Responsibility, with attitude items linked to behaviour items, based on conceptual models of the four values using a Rasch measurement model. The second aim is to investigate the effects of teaching values in a mathematics context through the ‘Caring Thinking’ way on students’ social attitudes and behaviours in the four values, using the scales developed. A quantitative approach was adopted and a quasi-experimental strategy was used. 280 students from eight secondary four (year 10) classes participated in this study: 140 students in the experimental group and 140 students in the control group.

Strand: Curriculum, Assessment, Affective and Leadership Development
Keywords: Caring Thinking; values education; Mathematics; Rasch measurement model; unidimensional scales; attitude; behaviour

Meeting Affective Needs of the Gifted Child
Yuen Kah Wai and Calvin Lee
Nanyang Girls’ High School

Joyce Van Tassel-Baska advocates that school curricula should not only develop the cognitive potential of the gifted child, it should meet her affective needs too. According to her, there are eight affective characteristics that are crucial in the development of any gifted child: sense of justice, altruism and idealism, sense of humour, emotional intensity, early concern about death, perfectionism, high levels of energy, strong attachment and commitment and aesthetic sensitivity. This paper will examine the possible affective needs that arise from these characteristics and evaluate to what extent the current Nanyang Girls’ High School curriculum has addressed these needs. This paper will also propose possible curriculum interventions that would help to meet most of the needs of the child’s giftedness, arising from Van Tassel-Baska’s curriculum recommendations, but customized to the Singaporean context.

Strand: Curriculum, Affective and Leadership Development
Keywords: Affective education, learning needs, gifted education, curriculum, affective characteristics

Lessons from SMAPP
Ms Sharon Lee, Ms Teo Chin Wen Nanyang Girls’ High School
This paper provides an insight into the on-going Singapore Mathematics Assessment and Pedagogy Project (SMAPP). The project is part of a broader research initiative on “Pedagogy and Classroom Processes” in the National Institute of Education research framework. The focus areas of SMAPP include new assessment approaches, teacher professional development and integration of IT in mathematics instruction.

Under this new assessment approach, SMAPP seeks to develop students’ higher-order thinking skills and enhance their problem-solving abilities pertaining to application in Mathematics. It also aims to increase students’ appreciation of Mathematics and its value. SMAPP tasks are contextualized, developmental in nature and web-based. They are designed to develop creative thinking, critical thinking, application skills, communication skills and positive attitudes in Mathematics. ICT is fully embedded in the process of assessment. This includes online delivery, response capturing and data analysis of assessment tasks.

For our paper, we will be focusing on the effects of this new assessment approach on our students at Nanyang Girl's High School. We will be sharing some examples of the tasks used and findings on the effects of this approach on the attitudes towards Mathematics and their self-perceived mathematical thinking and reasoning of female students in our high school. We will also be sharing on some of the challenges we faced in our implementation and the lessons learnt from these challenges.

Strand: Curriculum, Assessment
Keywords: Mathematics; Alternative Assessment, Higher-order Thinking

Sharing on Rockefeller University Summer High School Science Outreach Programme and Guidebook
‘Seven Weeks Survivor Guide for Teachers Mentoring Science Projects’ Mrs Sandy Tan (Senior Teacher Biology) Nanyang Girls’ High School
56 High School student participants (38 first year and 18 second year from New York schools) and 5 teacher participants (1 from Singapore and 4 from New York schools) spend 7 weeks of summer as apprentice to research scientists from Rockefeller University. The content, process, culture and ethos of modern scientific research were learnt through total immersion in the process of scientific inquiry. This paper will present a scientific research work on ‘Identification of double and triple Arabidopsis mutants involved in Phytochrome A signaling – searching of other light phenotypes’. Apart from research work, the other strength of the programme is that the progress of all participants is paced by the weekly STRAW course (ScienTific Reading And Writing course). Since all participants are asking their lab mentors for the same kinds of prompts (‘I need a journal article published by this lab; I need to show my data to my peers; I need to present my research in the form of a poster….’), the lab mentors have at least minimally deal with these requirements – thus giving the participants roughly the same attention and experience. The knowledge and skills acquired from the STRAW course will be adapted into a guidebook to support Singapore science teachers in their role of guiding students to do a science project.

Strand: Teachers’ Professional Development
Keywords: Guidebook, Teachers, Scientific reading and writing course, Science Research Projects

Effect of Using Web 2.0 in Teaching on Students’ Intrinsic Motivation in Learning Mathematics
Rong Yifei Hwa Chong Institution
This study investigated the effect of using Web2.0 in teaching on students’ intrinsic motivation in learning Mathematics, in the context of Singapore. Using the quantitative research methodology, it assessed the effect on Secondary Two (14 years of age) students in the sub-topic of Symmetry, Congruency and Similarity. The research was conducted in Hwa Chong Institution (High School Section), a prestigious independent school in Singapore. The participants were two classes of Secondary Two students in the School Based Gifted Education Programme: the Wetpaint class (N=25) and Trad class (N=25). Students in the Wetpaint class underwent one month of learning involving Web2.0 technologies. Students in the Trad class, which is the control group, used the traditional teaching and learning approach. The researcher engaged the quantitative approach through the use of pre-test and post-test questionnaires. Data was collected and analysed with the use of Microsoft Excel. The results showed positive effect of Web2.0 technology in teaching on students’ intrinsic motivation in learning Mathematics. The benefit and challenges of using Web2.0 technology were also discussed in the study.

Strand: Pedagogy (including use of Ed Tech), Diverse Learning Environment, Teachers’ Professional Development
Keywords: Mathematics Learning, WEB2.0, Intrinsic Motivation

边疆, 杨丹青, 曹嘉未 华侨中学


Strand: Pedagogy (including use of Ed Tech)
Keywords: 差异化阅读 独立阅读 多视角阅读 思维力



Diagnostic Teaching through Identification of Scientific Misconceptions
Using Just-In-Time Teaching (JITT) and Certainty Of Response Index (CRI)
Chia Kok Pin
Hwa Chong Institution
Scientific misconceptions that students possessed are known to hamper the proper acceptance and integration of new knowledge or skills. These misconceptions are binding cognitive structures that do not match what are known to be scientifically correct. Currently, the teaching strategy adopted by most teachers is to explain everything within the chapter without diagnosing the students’ abilities and uncovering what scientific misconceptions they have. This paper will describe the process of diagnosing student abilities and needs quantitatively in order to prescribe requisite learning activities through the use of Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) and Certainty of Response Index (CRI). The availability of such empirical model and quantitative data will empower the teachers to tailor their instructional methods to distinguish between students’ lack of knowledge from scientific misconceptions.
Strand: Pedagogy (including use of Ed Tech) Keywords: Scientific misconceptions, Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT), Certainty of Response Index (CRI), Diagnostic teaching

High Ability Students’ Perspectives on the Learning of History
through the Use of Asynchronous Discussion Boards: An Action Research Study
Chua Yoong Tching Eugene
Hwa Chong Institution

As a reflective practitioner of education, an action research study was carried out by the teacher-researcher to find out why his students had low interest levels in the subject of History. He diagnosed what the specific problem was for the low interest in History with 50 of his high ability students through a pre-intervention perception test and attempted to solve the problem in its context through a two cycle approach. This involved taking action through the use of asynchronous discussion boards to generate interest and constructive discussions outside of the curriculum, which were not bound by the limitations in time and space. The two iterative cycles were evaluated firstly through an open ended questionnaire where students, upon completion of the first cycle of asynchronous discussion board activities, reflected on their experience using online discussion forums to learn History, and was followed up with focus group discussions at the end of the second cycle, where the researcher went in-depth to find out how the use of asynchronous discussion boards could generate greater interest in students for the subject of History.
Strand: Pedagogy (including use of Ed Tech) Keywords: Web 2.0, Blended Learning, Asynchronous Discussion Boards, History, High Ability Students

Comprehension without tears
Rosalind Lee & Loke Lai Fun
Hwa Chong Institution

In this digital age, many students scan or skim texts as they are often overloaded by information. This results in an inability or inertia amongst them to engage in close reading of written texts in order to fully appreciate the writer’s intention. This, in turn, causes them to answer comprehension questions with an inadequate level of accuracy and precision. This research paper attempts to show how pupils’ engagement and understanding of the text is raised through a mixture of strategies that range from studying the source of the passages, to the use of movie clips, anecdotes as well as contextual backgrounds. Various strategies that are targeted at helping students to understand the demands of comprehension questions, hone answering skills as well as distinguish between good and bad answers will also be shared.
Strand: Pedagogy (including use of Ed Tech)
Keywords: Scanning and skimming for information, Close reading of written texts, Raising pupils’ engagement and understanding

王达坤 陈孟娟


Strand: Curriculum , Teachers’ Professional Development Keywords: 双文化 论文 写作

Roller Coaster Physics: Infusion of ICT in Authentic Problem-Based Learning
Ang Siew Hoon, Tan Hock Chye, Adeline Tan
Hwa Chong Institution

The curriculum of practice in the Parallel Curriculum Model (PCM) encourages educators to design learning experiences where students apply the methods of a practitioner in a discipline to problems that are of interest to them. In learning how professionals study their field and what questions they explore, it is possible that many students will understand and retain far more content than through more direct but limited approaches to teaching and learning. This paper presents the design of an online learning package in which students apply the understanding of Physics as an engineer, in the design of a roller coaster. The roller coaster simulation allows students to build and test their own roller coaster designs virtually, hence providing “hands-on” manipulation of the material world using ICT. The potential of ICT is further harnessed to enhance the authenticity of the problem scenario with the use of self-made cartoons.
Strand: Pedagogy (including use of Ed Tech)
Keywords: Parallel Curriculum Model, ICT, Problem scenario